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This paper refers to the optimal voltage pair, which minimizes the energy consumption of LSI circuits under a target delay constraint, as a Minimum Energy Point (MEP). This paper proposes an approximation-based implementation method for an MEP tracking system over a wide voltage region. This paper focuses on the MEP characteristics that the energy loss is sufficiently small even though the voltage point changes near the MEP. For example, the energy loss is less than 5% even though the estimated MEP differs by a few tens of millivolts in comparison with the actual MEP. Therefore, the complexity for determining the MEP is relaxed by approximating complex operations such as the logarithmic or the exponential functions in the MEP tracking algorithm, which leads to hardware-/software-efficient implementation. When the MEP tracking algorithm is implemented in software, the MEP estimation time is reduced from 1ms to 13*µ*s by the proposed approximation. When implemented in hardware, the proposed method can reduce the area of an MEP estimation circuit to a quarter. Measurement results of a 32-bit RISC-V processor fabricated in a 65-nm SOTB process technology show that the energy loss introduced by the proposed approximation is less than 2% in comparison with the MEP operation. Furthermore, we show that the MEP can be tracked within about 45 microseconds by the proposed MEP tracking system.

- Publication
- IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Fundamentals Vol.E106-A No.3 pp.542-550

- Publication Date
- 2023/03/01

- Publicized
- 2022/10/07

- Online ISSN
- 1745-1337

- DOI
- 10.1587/transfun.2022VLP0006

- Type of Manuscript
- Special Section PAPER (Special Section on VLSI Design and CAD Algorithms)

- Category

Shoya SONODA

Kyoto University

Jun SHIOMI

Osaka University

Hidetoshi ONODERA

Kyoto University

The copyright of the original papers published on this site belongs to IEICE. Unauthorized use of the original or translated papers is prohibited. See IEICE Provisions on Copyright for details.

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Shoya SONODA, Jun SHIOMI, Hidetoshi ONODERA, "Approximation-Based System Implementation for Real-Time Minimum Energy Point Tracking over a Wide Operating Performance Region" in IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Fundamentals,
vol. E106-A, no. 3, pp. 542-550, March 2023, doi: 10.1587/transfun.2022VLP0006.

Abstract: This paper refers to the optimal voltage pair, which minimizes the energy consumption of LSI circuits under a target delay constraint, as a Minimum Energy Point (MEP). This paper proposes an approximation-based implementation method for an MEP tracking system over a wide voltage region. This paper focuses on the MEP characteristics that the energy loss is sufficiently small even though the voltage point changes near the MEP. For example, the energy loss is less than 5% even though the estimated MEP differs by a few tens of millivolts in comparison with the actual MEP. Therefore, the complexity for determining the MEP is relaxed by approximating complex operations such as the logarithmic or the exponential functions in the MEP tracking algorithm, which leads to hardware-/software-efficient implementation. When the MEP tracking algorithm is implemented in software, the MEP estimation time is reduced from 1ms to 13*µ*s by the proposed approximation. When implemented in hardware, the proposed method can reduce the area of an MEP estimation circuit to a quarter. Measurement results of a 32-bit RISC-V processor fabricated in a 65-nm SOTB process technology show that the energy loss introduced by the proposed approximation is less than 2% in comparison with the MEP operation. Furthermore, we show that the MEP can be tracked within about 45 microseconds by the proposed MEP tracking system.

URL: https://global.ieice.org/en_transactions/fundamentals/10.1587/transfun.2022VLP0006/_p

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@ARTICLE{e106-a_3_542,

author={Shoya SONODA, Jun SHIOMI, Hidetoshi ONODERA, },

journal={IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Fundamentals},

title={Approximation-Based System Implementation for Real-Time Minimum Energy Point Tracking over a Wide Operating Performance Region},

year={2023},

volume={E106-A},

number={3},

pages={542-550},

abstract={This paper refers to the optimal voltage pair, which minimizes the energy consumption of LSI circuits under a target delay constraint, as a Minimum Energy Point (MEP). This paper proposes an approximation-based implementation method for an MEP tracking system over a wide voltage region. This paper focuses on the MEP characteristics that the energy loss is sufficiently small even though the voltage point changes near the MEP. For example, the energy loss is less than 5% even though the estimated MEP differs by a few tens of millivolts in comparison with the actual MEP. Therefore, the complexity for determining the MEP is relaxed by approximating complex operations such as the logarithmic or the exponential functions in the MEP tracking algorithm, which leads to hardware-/software-efficient implementation. When the MEP tracking algorithm is implemented in software, the MEP estimation time is reduced from 1ms to 13*µ*s by the proposed approximation. When implemented in hardware, the proposed method can reduce the area of an MEP estimation circuit to a quarter. Measurement results of a 32-bit RISC-V processor fabricated in a 65-nm SOTB process technology show that the energy loss introduced by the proposed approximation is less than 2% in comparison with the MEP operation. Furthermore, we show that the MEP can be tracked within about 45 microseconds by the proposed MEP tracking system.},

keywords={},

doi={10.1587/transfun.2022VLP0006},

ISSN={1745-1337},

month={March},}

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TY - JOUR

TI - Approximation-Based System Implementation for Real-Time Minimum Energy Point Tracking over a Wide Operating Performance Region

T2 - IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Fundamentals

SP - 542

EP - 550

AU - Shoya SONODA

AU - Jun SHIOMI

AU - Hidetoshi ONODERA

PY - 2023

DO - 10.1587/transfun.2022VLP0006

JO - IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Fundamentals

SN - 1745-1337

VL - E106-A

IS - 3

JA - IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Fundamentals

Y1 - March 2023

AB - This paper refers to the optimal voltage pair, which minimizes the energy consumption of LSI circuits under a target delay constraint, as a Minimum Energy Point (MEP). This paper proposes an approximation-based implementation method for an MEP tracking system over a wide voltage region. This paper focuses on the MEP characteristics that the energy loss is sufficiently small even though the voltage point changes near the MEP. For example, the energy loss is less than 5% even though the estimated MEP differs by a few tens of millivolts in comparison with the actual MEP. Therefore, the complexity for determining the MEP is relaxed by approximating complex operations such as the logarithmic or the exponential functions in the MEP tracking algorithm, which leads to hardware-/software-efficient implementation. When the MEP tracking algorithm is implemented in software, the MEP estimation time is reduced from 1ms to 13*µ*s by the proposed approximation. When implemented in hardware, the proposed method can reduce the area of an MEP estimation circuit to a quarter. Measurement results of a 32-bit RISC-V processor fabricated in a 65-nm SOTB process technology show that the energy loss introduced by the proposed approximation is less than 2% in comparison with the MEP operation. Furthermore, we show that the MEP can be tracked within about 45 microseconds by the proposed MEP tracking system.

ER -