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Hashcash, which is a Proof of Work (PoW) of bitcoin, is based on a preimage problem of hash functions of SHA-2 and RIPEMD. As these hash functions employ the Merkle-Damgard (MD) construction, a preimage can be found with negligible memory. Since such calculations can be accelerated by dedicated ASICs, it has a potential risk of a so-called 51% attack. To address this issue, we propose a new PoW scheme based on the key recovery problem of cascade block ciphers. By choosing the appropriate parameters, e.g., block sizes and key sizes of underlying block ciphers, we can make this problem a memory-hard problem such that it requires a lot of memory to efficiently solve it. Besides, we can independently adjust the required time complexity and memory complexity, according to requirements by target applications and progress of computational power.

- Publication
- IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Information Vol.E105-D No.2 pp.248-255

- Publication Date
- 2022/02/01

- Publicized
- 2021/11/08

- Online ISSN
- 1745-1361

- DOI
- 10.1587/transinf.2021BCP0005

- Type of Manuscript
- Special Section PAPER (Special Section on Blockchain Systems and Applications)

- Category

Takaki ASANUMA

University of Hyogo

Takanori ISOBE

University of Hyogo

The copyright of the original papers published on this site belongs to IEICE. Unauthorized use of the original or translated papers is prohibited. See IEICE Provisions on Copyright for details.

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Takaki ASANUMA, Takanori ISOBE, "A Proof of Work Based on Key Recovery Problem of Cascade Block Ciphers with ASIC Resistance" in IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Information,
vol. E105-D, no. 2, pp. 248-255, February 2022, doi: 10.1587/transinf.2021BCP0005.

Abstract: Hashcash, which is a Proof of Work (PoW) of bitcoin, is based on a preimage problem of hash functions of SHA-2 and RIPEMD. As these hash functions employ the Merkle-Damgard (MD) construction, a preimage can be found with negligible memory. Since such calculations can be accelerated by dedicated ASICs, it has a potential risk of a so-called 51% attack. To address this issue, we propose a new PoW scheme based on the key recovery problem of cascade block ciphers. By choosing the appropriate parameters, e.g., block sizes and key sizes of underlying block ciphers, we can make this problem a memory-hard problem such that it requires a lot of memory to efficiently solve it. Besides, we can independently adjust the required time complexity and memory complexity, according to requirements by target applications and progress of computational power.

URL: https://global.ieice.org/en_transactions/information/10.1587/transinf.2021BCP0005/_p

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@ARTICLE{e105-d_2_248,

author={Takaki ASANUMA, Takanori ISOBE, },

journal={IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Information},

title={A Proof of Work Based on Key Recovery Problem of Cascade Block Ciphers with ASIC Resistance},

year={2022},

volume={E105-D},

number={2},

pages={248-255},

abstract={Hashcash, which is a Proof of Work (PoW) of bitcoin, is based on a preimage problem of hash functions of SHA-2 and RIPEMD. As these hash functions employ the Merkle-Damgard (MD) construction, a preimage can be found with negligible memory. Since such calculations can be accelerated by dedicated ASICs, it has a potential risk of a so-called 51% attack. To address this issue, we propose a new PoW scheme based on the key recovery problem of cascade block ciphers. By choosing the appropriate parameters, e.g., block sizes and key sizes of underlying block ciphers, we can make this problem a memory-hard problem such that it requires a lot of memory to efficiently solve it. Besides, we can independently adjust the required time complexity and memory complexity, according to requirements by target applications and progress of computational power.},

keywords={},

doi={10.1587/transinf.2021BCP0005},

ISSN={1745-1361},

month={February},}

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TY - JOUR

TI - A Proof of Work Based on Key Recovery Problem of Cascade Block Ciphers with ASIC Resistance

T2 - IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Information

SP - 248

EP - 255

AU - Takaki ASANUMA

AU - Takanori ISOBE

PY - 2022

DO - 10.1587/transinf.2021BCP0005

JO - IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Information

SN - 1745-1361

VL - E105-D

IS - 2

JA - IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Information

Y1 - February 2022

AB - Hashcash, which is a Proof of Work (PoW) of bitcoin, is based on a preimage problem of hash functions of SHA-2 and RIPEMD. As these hash functions employ the Merkle-Damgard (MD) construction, a preimage can be found with negligible memory. Since such calculations can be accelerated by dedicated ASICs, it has a potential risk of a so-called 51% attack. To address this issue, we propose a new PoW scheme based on the key recovery problem of cascade block ciphers. By choosing the appropriate parameters, e.g., block sizes and key sizes of underlying block ciphers, we can make this problem a memory-hard problem such that it requires a lot of memory to efficiently solve it. Besides, we can independently adjust the required time complexity and memory complexity, according to requirements by target applications and progress of computational power.

ER -